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The Czech Republic (Czech: Česká republika), or Czechia (Česko) is a small landlocked country in Central Europe, situated south-east of Germany and bordering Austria to the south, Poland to the north and Slovakia to the south-east.
The Czech Republic has 14 political regions which can be grouped in eight regions: The Czech Republic is not a large country but has a rich and eventful history.
After World War II, Czechoslovakia expelled most of its Germans by force and many of the ethnic Hungarians after the Potsdam Conference.
However, the nation was very blessed in the fact that it emerged from the war more or less physically intact as it avoided the fate of the massive air bombardments and invasions that levelled most of the historic neighbouring cities in Germany, Austria, Poland and Belarus.
Moravia and Bohemia (the other half of the Czech Republic) were among the first regions of continental Europe to undergo an industrial revolution; however Moravia did not experience the mass urbanisation of Bohemia.
This region is, therefore, still home to gorgeous vineyards, orchards, fields full of "organic" produce, and filled with scenic mountain vistas and cute little villages.
A poor relationship with the German minority (20% of the overall population) was a particular problem that was capitalized on by Adolf Hitler and used as "rationale" for the dismemberment of the nation before the outbreak of World War II.
The Czech region was inhabited by Celtic tribes Boii for the first four centuries of the first millennium. Later, Slavs arrived and, in the 9th century they founded the Great Moravian Empire, stretching from Germany to the Ukraine.
For all other nationals, passports/travel documents must be valid for a period of at least 90 days beyond the expected length of stay in the Czech Republic/Schengen Area.
Foreign nationals whose stay in the Czech Republic will exceed 30 days are required to register within 30 days on their arrival in the Czech Republic with the Alien and Border Police.
Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression and conservatism within the party ranks called "normalisation".
In November 1989, the communist government was deposed in a peaceful Velvet Revolution.